As a development project which involves commercial interest after the project ends, PASSES is driven to deliver data analytical processing which meets the need of its clients. Hence the central idea of the project is to make sure the project captures the user requirements before building any algorithms for monitoring peatland via satellite observation. The innovative feature of PASSES is to offer clients or users a method to measure the subsidence of peatland in a certain period as the proxy of degradation of peat.


To complement the analysis for the baseline, the evaluation of this project conducts a political economy of peatland in Indonesia using a framework from the World Bank known as Problem Driven Analysis as presented below.

Summary of Land Use Monitoring Data and Political Economy Problem Driven Analysis 


Governance And Political Economy (GPE) Problem Driven Analysis

What vulnerabilities/ challenges?

Evidence of poor outcomes to which GPE weaknesses appear to contribute

Eg: repeated failure to adopt sector reform and poor sector outcomes, infrastructure identified as constraints to growth but not effectively addressed, continuous food insecurity, corruption continues to undermine the business climate even after anti-corruption law.


Institutional and governance arrangements and capacities 

What are the associated institutional set-up and governance arrangements?

Mapping of relevant branches of government, ministries, agencies and their interaction.

Existing laws and regulations. Policy processes (formal rules & de facto). What mechanisms intended to ensure integrity and accountability and to limit corruption exist?


Political economy drivers

Why are things this way? Why are policies or institutional arrangements not being improved?

Analysis of stakeholders, incentives, rents/rent distribution, historical legacies and prior experiences with reforms, social trends and forces (e.g., ethnic tensions), and how they shape current stakeholder positions and actions.


Adopted from: Fritz, Kaiser and Levy 2009: ix. 



PASSES uses mixed methods to collect and analyse data. The empirical basis of the evaluation uses a literature review, interviews with key stakeholders and survey. These data are used to measure how the peatland assessment in South East Asia primarily in Indonesia is improved after the PASSES project. This improvement in monitoring and assessment of peatland is expected to improve the management of peatland in this region.



Alfarizi K. 2018. Pemerintah Berharap FAO Memotret Kondisi Hutan Indonesia.


Arumingtyas L. 2018. Deforestasi Indonesia 2017 Turun, Definisi Masih Perdebatan.

Mongabay [Internet]. Available from:

CIFOR. 2015. Politik ekonomi kebakaran hutan dan asap di Indonesia [Internet]. Available from:


Fritz V, Kaiser K, Levy B. 2009. Problem-Driven Governance and Political economy Analysis. Washington D.C. Available from:


Hoare A. 2015. Illegal Logging and Related Trade The Response in Malaysia. Res Pap [Internet].:35. Available from:


Lazaroo S. 2016. Forestry Department using real-time technology to combat illegal logging. StarOnline.


NRE. National Forest Monitoring System [Internet]. Kuala Lumpur. Available from: National Forest Monitoring System.pdf


Popkin G. 2018. US government considers charging for popular Earth-observing data. Nature.


Saturi S. 2013. Data Deforestasi RI Meragukan, Metodologi Dipertanyakan. Mongabay.


TheStraitTimes. 2016. Singapore to pursue firms over fires, despite Indonesian ire.

Thung P. 2014. The politics of nature in Indonesia [Internet]. [place unknown]: Wageningen University. Available from:

Monitoring and Evaluation of Peatland Assessment in SE Asia by Satellite (PASSES)

  • Prepared a methodological framework for monitoring and evaluation of a UK’s Space Agency funded programme called PASSES

  • In 2018, Dala contributed to the completion of the baseline study of PASSES in Indonesia and Malaysia which includes political economy analysis and data collection for key performance indicators

  • Interviewed about 30 key stakeholders in Indonesia and Malaysia which include Peat Restoration Agency, Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Bogor Agricultural Institute, Associations, Malaysia’s global environment institute, NGOs and several private companies.

PASSES (Peat land Assessment in SE Asia by Satellite) is a collaborative development project led by CGI, a global end-to-end IT and business process services company based in London.

​The project is a partnership of several institutions based in the UK:


The project scientific personnel are:

  • Thomas Lankester is an Earth Observation (EO) Technical Architect with 25+ years of systems engineering and EO application experience. He has been Technical Manager for the development and operations of complex EO production environments such as the ESA High Level Product Generation (HiProGen) service, as well as having been involved in the development of the UK Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space (CEMS) facility.

  • Andrew Sowter is GVL’s CTO and has almost 30 years’ experience in the processing and interpretation of SAR data. His InSAR solution has formed the main basis for the creation of GVL, specifically his invention of the ISBAS technique which allows precise measurement of the rates of land motion over vegetated land cover, including peat land. In 2014, he was the winner of the prestigious Copernicus Masters prize, awarded by the EU, ESA and the EEA.

  • Susan Page is a Centre for Landscape and Climate Research (CLCR) member and holds a Chair in Physical Geography. Her research addresses ecology, carbon dynamics, impacts of land use and fire on tropical peat lands; peat land restoration, ecosystem service provision and livelihoods. She has participated in multinational research on SE Asian peat lands; was the first to draw attention to the scale of carbon emissions from Indonesian peat land fires; and was Lead Author on fire emissions from organic soils for the IPCC (Wetlands Supplement, 2013). 

  • Kevin Tansey is a CLCR member and is a Professor of Remote Sensing. His research focusses on characterising vegetation on the Earth's surface and identifying disturbance indicators (specifically fire, deforestation, degradation and drainage) of vegetation. He is a member of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics Fire Implementation Team (GOFC-GOLD Fire IT).

  • Doreen Boyd is Associate Professor and Reader in the School of Geography at UoN and has a 16 year research track record working with remotely sensed data. Her research has been undertaken in both academic and commercial environments. She has won funding from the Royal Society (South East Asian Rainforest Research Programme), the Japanese Space Agency, EPSRC, NERC and AHRC. 

  • Chris Evans leads the CEH Peat land and Coastal Biogeochemistry Group, and is a visiting professor at Bangor University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. He has worked on SE Asian peatlands for over a decade, and has published scientific and policy articles relating to SE Asian peatland management in high-impact journals including Nature, Science, Global Change Biology and Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 

  • Stephanie Evers is a Senior Lecturer in Freshwater Biology and Wetland Biogeochemistry. She has been working on SE Asian peatlands for 6 years and had been based in the region for 5 years prior to starting at LJMU. She has multiple ongoing projects in Malaysia linked to assessing the environmental degradation of peatlands under varied land uses and development of effective management strategies.

  • Shoa Asfaha is an IPE Triple Line M&E, gender and inclusion, forest governance and climate change specialist, with more than 25 years’ experience in international development. She is the Head of Forest Governance and Climate Change at IPE Triple Line, and holds a PhD in Economic Geography.

  • Martin Wright is an international development specialist with over 30 years of experience in project and grant programme management, M&E. He is currently part of the IPE Triple Team working on the DFID Forest Land Use and Governance (FLAG) programme in Indonesia.

  • Aidy Halimanjaya is an Indonesian consultant with 10 years research and consultancy expertise in forestry and climate change mitigation. She has extensive experience in impact assessment and M&E in Indonesia, Brazil and Peru. She has co-designed an innovative method to assess the outcomes of a $30m climate change mitigation forestry programme with CIFOR and ODI.


PASSES is supported by the UK’s Space Agency in collaboration with the UK’s International Climate Fund through International Partnership Programme II.


  • Baseline study of PASSES

  • Political economy analysis of peatland in Indonesia