Martha Maulidia, PhD
climate change policy | energy policy | environmental management | climate finance | sustainability
I have more than 15 years of experience in research and consulting projects in climate and energy policy, climate finance, and sustainability. I worked on climate mitigation actions in hydropower, palm oil, waste, and REDD+. My PhD research finished in 2019 and focused on the role of the private sector in renewable energy in Indonesia.
PhD, The University of Queensland (Australia), Environmental Management
MSc, Hamburg University of Technology (Germany), Environmental Engineering
ST, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia), Environmental Engineering
My research interests include renewable energy policy, private sector engagement, climate finance, the role of institutions and the local political and social aspects influencing the design of a policy to address global environmental issues
UK Climate Change Unit | Fiscal instruments for the control of wastes in the oil and gas industries in Indonesia
Indonesian National Council on Climate Change | Lessons learned from fast-start finance for Indonesia
GIZ | Climate finance effectiveness
GIZ | Scoping study on climate finance in Indonesia
GIZ | Enhancing private sector engagement in climate finance
Selected projects (8)
Haze Tracker (Singapore Institute of International Affairs)
2015 - 2015
Provided news analysis and latest update on transboundary haze pollution – related issues including palm oil, sustainable commodities, and green finance in the Southeast Asian region for the Haze Tracker website (
Policy Study “Fiscal instruments for the control of wastes in the oil and gas industries in Indonesia (Armetis Institute)
2014 - 2014
As part of the Low Carbon Support Programme for the Ministry of Finance (Fiscal Policy Unit - Ministry of Finance, Department for International Development - UK Climate Change Unit) Coordinated the team consisting of 2 economists, an energy specialist, and an environment specialist to provide fiscal
policy analysis to lay a foundation of a low carbon development in oil and gas sector in Indonesia; developed
interview plans; interviewed oil and gas business practitioners; conducted a focus group discussion with private companies, policy makers, and other stakeholders; drafted analysis of the fiscal instruments such as the possibility of imposing excise to control emissions from the oil and gas activities in Indonesia.
Assessing climate finance readiness in Indonesia (CDKN/GIZ)
2013 - 2013
Conducted rapid scoping studies to map relevant climate finance architecture and performance on the basis identify next steps in readiness-building. Facilitated readiness-building activities through the consultative process, guided by the issues highlighted in the country assessment studies. Further development and ultimate uptake of these proposals is under consideration with country partners.
UN-REDD (United Nations – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) (FAO)
2011 - 2012
Provided technical advice on National Forest Inventory (NFI), Measurement Reporting and Verification (MRV) and Reference Emission Levels (REL) to the Ministry of Forestry, co-author of a study on provisional REL in Central Sulawesi, and represented FAO/UN-REDD in REDD+ global and national policy discussions.
Emission Reduction in Cities: Municipal Solid Waste Management Phase 2 (Fichtner Engineering Consulting, Indonesia)
2010 - 2011
Prepared a feasibility study of waste projects in 11 cities in Indonesia in terms of GHG emission reduction, CDM potential, Projet of Activity potential and GHG inventory, as part of a multidisciplinary team analysing technical, financial, socio-environmental and climate mitigation aspects of the intervention. The assignment recommended investment measures in waste management under cooperation between Indonesia and Germany. Ministry of Public Works, Municipality in 11 cities, and German Development Bank (KfW).
Selected publications (7)
Martha Maulidia, Paul Dargusch, Peta Ashworth, Agung Wicaksono
Case Studies in the Environment
The first utility-scale (75 MW) wind farm facility in Indonesia (the “Sidrap” project) was launched in South Sulawesi in early 2018. In this case study, we assess how several factors contributed to the successful development of the Sidrap project including strong signals of support from the Indonesian Government; long-term local presence of private sector partners; familiarity of private sector partners with the risks and nuances of investing in Indonesia; and an innovative private-public sector partnership model. In the last 2 years, Indonesia’s electricity sector has changed much in terms of pricing policy and private sector involvement. Much effort has been directed toward the Indonesian Government meeting its renewable energy deployment target of 23% of the total energy mix by 2025. The question remains, however, on whether Indonesia will be able to develop additional renewable energy projects to Sidrap in the future, given the continuing changes and uncertainty in Indonesian’s renewable energy policy and politics.
Martha Maulidia, Paul Dargusch, Peta Ashworth, Fitrian Ardiansyah
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Renewable energy targets announced in 2014 present an opportunity to reform Indonesia's electricity sector which is dominated by fossil fuels. In this paper we discuss Indonesia's current renewable energy policies and future outlook for achieving the targets. This paper serves as a literature review of Indonesia's changing energy policy landscape, as part of a broader research investigating renewable energy targets and the role of the private sector. Despite Indonesia's wealth of renewable energy resources, numerous studies have identified multiple constraints to the development of renewable energy, including geographical, institutional and investment factors. Influential groups are calling for the Indonesian Government to put in place a clear policy framework that facilitates private sector investment. Therefore, interventions to facilitate investment in energy infrastructure in Indonesia must address the monopolised power market system that oversees a changing, complex malaise of electricity pricing regulations which make investment risky and uncertain. This study will enrich the existing literature on renewable energy policy which emphasises the importance of engaging the private sector. It is based on a rigorous qualitative assessment of Indonesia's changing policy that affects the progress of the renewable energy targets. The lessons from Indonesia's experience may provide insights for policymakers notably in developing countries. Keywords: energy in Indonesia, private sector investment, renewable energy
University of Queensland
The Indonesian Government have set several medium-term targets for renewable energy development that aim to support the transition of the Indonesian electricity sector to a lower carbon future while still maintaining sustainable growth. Achieving such targets requires clear policy and regulation, a strict mandate, improved coordination among institutions, and largescale investment. While these targets may appear to be unrealistic, in light of the Paris Agreement, Indonesia like many countries has a global obligation to reform its energy sector, transitioning away from a reliance on fossil fuels. Due to limited public finances, private sector investment has been identified as crucial for renewable energy development in Indonesia. My research aims to create a framework through which the effectiveness of Indonesian energy policy options that seek to enhance private sector investment in renewable energy development can be assessed. The framework is based on the dimensions of the energy trilemma: energy equity, energy security, and environmental sustainability.
Indonesia is blessed with abundant fossil fuel and renewable energy resources, however around 10% of its population remains without access to electricity. Historically, there has been a dependence on fossil fuels, based on a belief that the country is rich in oil. However, in fact Indonesia has become a net importer of oil since 2004 and over the years, state revenue from oil and gas exports has continued to decline. Indonesian energy policy has traditionally subsidised the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Despite this, Indonesia’s energy policy has continued to support the production of fossil fuels and subsidised their domestic consumption. This precedent has seen Indonesia lag behind other countries in the search for more reliable and sustainable energy options. At the same time geographical challenges of Indonesia, extending across thousands of islands, further complicates the challenges of sustainable energy policy.
This thesis takes an institutionalists’ approach to investigate the energy transition in Indonesia, emphasising the importance of cooperation among institutions, different levels of government, the private sector, and civil society. I take a private sector perspective (i.e. renewable energy developers and investors) to investigate the barriers and enablers of renewable energy investment in Indonesia. The analysis presented recognises the need for the involvement of multi actors within the policy making process. In addition, this thesis examines micro-level policy making in Indonesia, which takes into account local political and social aspects that may influence policy designed to address global environmental issues such as climate change.
The methodology used in this thesis is qualitative. The methodology involved reviewing relevant documents and soliciting stories and observations based on the views of experts, business practitioners, government officials, and civil society through in-depth interviews. A qualitative approach enables an assessment of the complexity and extensiveness of Indonesia’s energy transition through the exploration of assumptions and interactions among actors, priorities, and interests. A qualitative approach can be considered more suitable than quantitative approaches when exploring phenomenon that involve multiple actors, their interactions, and the dynamics of an often fast-changing policy and political landscape. This thesis commences by investigating the background of Indonesia’s renewable energy targets. This is followed by an investigation of the barriers to private sector investment in renewable energy. Key barriers include policy uncertainty as a result of changing staff, contradictory priorities, and different interpretations of the mandate to provide affordable energy access. Further analysis focussed on the structure and policy framework in which the
state electricity company, PLN, is embedded. Recommendations for the reform of the electricity sector in Indonesia follow, drawn from experiences in other countries. The findings suggest a need to establish alternative institutional arrangements in response to an unaccommodating national government policy towards renewable energy.
Analysing renewable energy development from a private sector perspective contributes to the discourse of how policy can be better formulated to promote renewable energy in Indonesia with the hope of encouraging policymakers to practice more evidence-based policy making in the energy sector. The thesis calls for more transparent policymaking to address the current shortcomings of renewable energy policy making in Indonesia, which undermines the importance of private sector perspectives and the role of other stakeholders. It highlights that in unfavourable political conditions for renewable energy investment, the private sector needs to innovate and find ways to thrive.
Rory Padfield, Simon Drew, Khadijah Syayuti, Susan Page, Stephanie Evers, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Nagulendran Kangayatkarasu, Alex Sayok, Sune Hansen, Greetje Schouten, Martha Maulidia, Effie Papargyropoulou & Mun Hou Tham
The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and forests of high conservation value. Focusing on palm oil—a versatile food crop and source of bioenergy—this paper analyses national, international and corporate policy initiatives in order to clarify the current and future direction of oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia. The policies of ‘zero burn’, ‘no deforestation’ and ‘no planting on peatlands’ are given particular emphasis in the paper. The landscape implications of corporate commitments are analysed to determine the amount of land, land types and geographies that could be affected in the future. The paper concludes by identifying key questions related to the further study of sustainable land use policy and practice.
Maulidia, M., and Halimanjaya, A
Key institutions in efforts to implement these measures include DNPI, the National Council on Climate Change established by the former president, the Ministry of Finance, the planning Ministry Bappenas and its Indonesian Climate Change Trust Fund, and the REDD+ Agency. Financial regulators are also beginning to encourage green investment, and there are nascent efforts to engage the private sector to make environmentally and socially beneficial investments. While the ICCTF was intended to foster a coordinated approach on climate finance, in practice it is one of the smallest actors in the domestic climate finance architecture in part because of its modest levels of capitalisation, but also because the arrangements for the Fund did not give key actors other than Bappenas a clear role. The Fund has also struggled to meet international fiduciary standards. Existing international climate funds have been docked in one of the key ministries involved, and have rarely made proactive efforts to engage the range of relevant national stakeholders, notably from the private sector and local government. There is a recognised opportunity for new climate funds such as the GCF to work in collaboration with the NDA to take a more proactive approach to engaging diverse stakeholders, and put in place new operational processes that can foster progress in achieving mitigation and adaptation outcomes in the context of national climate and development priorities.
Sustainable Development: Climate Change Governance in Indonesia
Joni Jupesta, Liana Bratasida, Martha Maulidia, Norichika Kanie, Takako Wakiyama,
Aki Suwa, Atsushi Sunami, Govindan Parayil, Yuko Harayama
Earth Systems Governance
The concept of “green growth” has been connected to “green economy for sustainable development and poverty reduction” the first theme of the 2012 United Nations (UN) Conference on Sustainable Development. The government of Indonesia attempts to remove the barriers to green growth by eliminating costly fuel subsidies, promoting cleaner energy sources, and adopting payment for ecosystems services through the REDD+ program. Some of the policies lead to conflicting outcomes and the herewith associated problems need to be overcome. This paper examines the climate change governance in Indonesia at international level linked with the national action plan and down to sub-national (regional) action plans. The climate policy is strongly determined at national level and is also based on the international climate regime of UN agencies such as UNFCCC with the implementation at national and local level. Due to decentralization of economic and political power to provincial and local governments, coherence is absolutely necessary for existing policies at different levels to ensure a sustainability pathway for achieving green growth. This issue is also relevant to the second theme of the 2012 United Nations (UN) Conference on Sustainable Development, namely the institutional framework for sustainable development. This should involve systematic institutional governance by improving coordination among overseeing institutions.